MLHU - Health Status Resource

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A (14) | B (3) | C (13) | D (5) | E (6) | F (8) | G (1) | H (12) | I (18) | K (1) | L (13) | M (8) | N (7) | O (6) | P (20) | R (6) | S (33) | T (6) | U (3) | V (3) | W (3) | Y (1) | (4)

Aboriginal Identity Population

The Aboriginal identity population includes people who reported that they identify with at least one Aboriginal group; that is, North American Indian, Métis or Inuit, and/or those who reported being a Treaty Indian or a Registered Indian, as defined by the Indian Act of Canada, and/or those who reported they were members of an Indian band or First Nations.

Active for Adults (18-64) and Older Adults (65+)

at least 150 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week, in bouts of 10 minutes or more according to the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines.1

1. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology; c2019 [cited 2019 Apr 17]. Available from:

Active for Youth (12-17)

At least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity daily according to the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth. Although vigorous intensity activity is recommended at least 3 days per week it was not considered in this analysis.1

1. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology; c2019 [cited 2019 Apr 17]. Available from:

Active transportation

Includes all time spent traveling in active ways in the 7 days prior to the survey interview. Active transportation is any form of human-powered transportation, such as walking, cycling, running, skateboarding, rollerblading, or riding a scooter.

Adverse Events Following Immunization

An adverse event following immunization (AEFI) is an unwanted or unexpected health effect that occurs after an immunization is given. AEFI may include local reactions at the injection site, allergic reactions, and other conditions or reactions. It is important to note that an adverse event that follows an immunization may, or may not, be due to that immunization.

Ontario public health units are required to follow up potential AEFI that are reported by health care providers. Reported AEFI that meet the provincial case definition are included in the provincial, national, and international system of vaccine safety monitoring.

Affordable housing

Is measured using the shelter-cost-to-income ratio. When households spend 30% or more of their total before-tax household income on shelter costs it is considered not to be affordable.

Age-Specific Fertility Rate

The number of live births to women in a given age group over the number of women in that age group.

Age-specific pregnancy rate

The number of pregnancies among females in a given age group, per 1,000 females of the given age group.

Age-Standardized Rate

Age-standardized rates may be used to compare different geographic areas or time frames to adjust for any differences in the age structure of the populations that could cause a difference in rates.

It reflects the number of events (e.g., deaths, hospitalizations) that would occur for a given population if that population had the same age distribution as the 1991 Canadian population.

Age-standardized rates have been used to make more valid comparisons than comparing crude rates. Standardization requires adjusting for the effects of varying age structures of different populations and over different periods of time. The importance of age-standardization can be illustrated by using Population X, which has a higher proportion of elderly persons than Population Y. The unadjusted or “crude” mortality rate for Population X would be significantly higher than Population Y solely because it has a higher proportion of elderly persons and the elderly have a much higher death rate than younger people. This concept also applies when comparing one population over different time periods if the age structure of the population changes over time. By standardizing the mortality rates for Population X, we can see what the mortality rate would be like if they had the same age structure as Population Y. The two different populations are now compared directly.

Air Quality Index (AQI)

Since 2015, the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) has been used in Ontario to assess the quality of outdoor air and potential impacts on human health. This index is calculated based on three air pollutants: fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and ground-level ozone. The AQHI scale is from one to 10; the higher the AQHI rating, greater is the likelihood of health impacts.

Alzheimer’s Disease

A type of dementia where brain cells progressively degenerate, which can affect cognitive and functional abilities, emotions and moods, behaviour, and physical abilities.1

6. Canadian Cancer Society. What You Need to Know About Blood Cancer in Canada [Internet]. Toronto, ON: Canadian Cancer Society; 2019 [cited 2019 Sep 25]. Available from:

Any breastfeeding

When an infant is fed breast milk in combination with other formula, water, substitute, or food.



Apgar score

A method to quickly assess the clinical status of a newborn baby at one and five minutes after birth. The score consists of five components: colour, heart rate, reflexes, muscle tone, and respiration, each of which is given a score of 0, 1, or 2.1

1. Committee on Obstetric Practice American Academy of Pediatrics—Committee on Fetus and Newborn. The Apgar Score [Internet]. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2015 Reaffirmed 2017 [cited 2018 Nov 15]. Available from:

Association of Public Health Epidemiologists of Ontario (APHEO)

The Association of Public Health Epidemiologists in Ontario is an organization of approximately 90 full members who practice epidemiology in Ontario's public health units, as well as more than 150 affiliate members. APHEO's mission is to advance and promote the discipline and professional practice of epidemiology in Ontario public health units.