MLHU - Health Status Resource

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Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)

The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) is a national population household survey of Canadians aged 12 years and older. It provides self-reported information related to health status, health care utilization and health determinants. Data is generally available down to the level of health region. To produce accurate estimates at the health unit level, two-year period estimates (e.g. 2013 and 2014 data average) were used in this resource along with estimates from the 2003, 2005, 2007/8 , 2009/10 and 2011/12 data collection cycles. 

Cannabis-related emergency department visit

These include visits for poisonings as well as cannabis-related mental health and behavioural reasons: acute intoxication; dependence; withdrawal; and, cannabis-related psychotic disorder.

Cardiovascular Disease

An umbrella term for diseases that affect the heart or blood vessels, including ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and hypertension.


Data from the Canadian Census was provided by Statistics Canada. The census takes place every five years in Canada and is a reliable source of information for population and dwelling counts as well as demographic and other socio-economic characteristics.

Census Family

Census family is defined as a married couple and the children, if any, of either and/or both spouses; a couple living common law and the children, if any, of either and/or both partners; or a lone parent of any marital status with at least one child living in the same dwelling and that child or those children. All members of a particular census family live in the same dwelling.

A couple may be of opposite or same sex. Children may be children by birth, marriage, common-law union or adoption regardless of their age or marital status as long as they live in the dwelling and do not have their own married spouse, common-law partner or child living in the dwelling. Grandchildren living with their grandparent(s) but with no parents present also constitute a census family.

1. Statistics Canada. Dictionary, Census of Population, Census Family 2016 [Internet] Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada; 2016 [updated 2017 May 3; cited 2018 Nov 30]. Available from

Cerebrovascular disease

Disease that occurs when there is a problem with the circulation of blood in the blood vessels of the brain.1 It includes stroke, carotid stenosis (narrowing of the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain), vertebral stenosis (narrowing of the vertebral arteries), intercranial stenosis (narrowing of the artery inside the brain), aneurysms (bulge in a blood vessel in the brain), and vascular malformations.2

1. Public Health Agency of Canada. Six Types of Cardiovascular Disease [Internet]. Ottawa, ON: Government of Canada; 2010 [cited 2019 Sep 26]. Available from:

2. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Cerebrovascular Disease [Internet]. Rolling Meadows, IL: American Association of Neurological Surgeons; 2019 [cited 2019 Sep 26]. Available from:

Client or family in need of newcomer support

A client or family who is new to Canada (less than five years living in Canada), who lacks social supports, or who may be experiencing social isolation.

Coefficient of Variation

The coefficient of variation (CV) is the measure used to indicate the sampling variability associated with survey estimates. The CV is obtained by dividing the standard deviation of the estimate by the estimate itself and it is expressed as a percentage of the estimate. Statistics Canada guidelines around the release of survey estimates, based on the magnitude of the CV, have been followed in this resource:

  • A CV between 0 and 16.5% is considered acceptable and the estimate can be released without restriction;
  • Estimates with a CV between 16.6 and 33.3% can be released, but with a cautionary note regarding high sampling variability;
  • Estimates with a CV greater than 33.3% should be suppressed due to extreme sampling variability;
  • Estimate release guidelines require at least 10 observations;

For CCHS survey estimates in this resource, CV’s have been calculated using the “bootstrap method”.

Communication Skills & General Knowledge domain

Assesses children’s ability to communicate in socially appropriate ways, their use of language, their ability to tell a story, and their knowledge about the world around them.1

1. Offord Centre for Child Studies. EDI in Ontario over Time [Internet]. Hamilton, ON: McMaster University, 2018 [cited 2019 Mar 26]. Available from:

Community belonging

Population aged 12 and over who described their sense of belong as somewhat strong or very strong when asked, “How would you describe your sense of belonging to your local community? Would you say it is: very strong, somewhat strong, somewhat weak or very weak? “  (excludes “Don’t know” responses).


"A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury. It is caused by a bump, blow or jolt to the head or by a hit to the body that causes the head and brain to move rapidly back and forth. This sudden movement can cause the brain to bounce around or twist in the skull, creating chemical changes in the brain and sometimes stretching and damaging brain cells.”1

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; [cited 2019 Feb 11]. What is a concussion?; [reviewed 2017 Jan 31; updated 2017 Jan 31; cited 2019 Feb 11]; [about 2 screens]. Available from:

Confidence Intervals

Confidence intervals (CIs) indicate the reliability of a statistical estimate or rate.  A 95% confidence interval is interpreted as a range in which we can be 95% confident the true population value lies. Wide confidence intervals, suggest less reliable estimates than narrow confidence intervals. In general, the larger the population, the narrower the CI and hence, the more precise is the estimate. Confidence intervals can also be used as tests of statistical significance when comparing estimates – if the CIs for the estimates under comparison overlap, we can say the difference between the estimates is not statistically significant. For CCHS data, 95% CIs have been calculated using the “bootstrap method”.

Current Smoker

Smokes cigarettes at the present time, including daily and occasionally.