The Aboriginal identity population includes people who reported that they identify with at least one Aboriginal group; that is, North American Indian, Métis or Inuit, and/or those who reported being a Treaty Indian or a Registered Indian, as defined by the Indian Act of Canada, and/or those who reported they were members of an Indian band or First Nations.
An adverse event following immunization (AEFI) is an unfavourable medical condition or reaction that occurs after an immunization is given. An adverse event that follows an immunization may or may not be due to that immunization. Reports of AEFIs from Middlesex-London are compiled and assessed as part of the provincial, national and international system of vaccine safety monitoring.
Is measured using the shelter-cost-to-income ratio. When households spend 30% or more of their total before-tax household income on shelter costs it is considered not to be affordable.
The number of live births to women in a given age group over the number of women in that age group.
Age-standardized rates may be used to compare different geographic areas or time frames to adjust for any differences in the age structure of the populations that could cause a difference in rates.
It reflects the number of events (e.g., deaths, hospitalizations) that would occur for a given population if that population had the same age distribution as the 1991 Canadian population.
Age-standardized rates have been used to make more valid comparisons than comparing crude rates. Standardization requires adjusting for the effects of varying age structures of different populations and over different periods of time. The importance of age-standardization can be illustrated by using Population X, which has a higher proportion of elderly persons than Population Y. The unadjusted or “crude” mortality rate for Population X would be significantly higher than Population Y solely because it has a higher proportion of elderly persons and the elderly have a much higher death rate than younger people. This concept also applies when comparing one population over different time periods if the age structure of the population changes over time. By standardizing the mortality rates for Population X, we can see what the mortality rate would be like if they had the same age structure as Population Y. The two different populations are now compared directly.
This index is based on six pollutants that have adverse effects on human health and the environment: ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and total reduced sulphur (TRS) compounds.
AQI < 32 = good or very good; AQI 32-49 = moderate; AQI 50-99 = poor; AQI >99 = very poor
Air quality in the poor or very poor range can have adverse effects on a large portion of the animal/human population and can damage property and vegetation. (Ministry of the Environment, 2008)
The Association of Public Health Epidemiologists in Ontario is an organization of approximately 90 full members who practice epidemiology in Ontario's public health units, as well as more than 150 affiliate members. APHEO's mission is to advance and promote the discipline and professional practice of epidemiology in Ontario public health units.
Drinking five or more alcoholic drinks on one occasion.
The annual number of live births per 1,000 population.
The Body Mass Index (BMI) is a ratio of weight to height (kg/m2) and is considered the most useful indicator of population health risk associated with both overweight and underweight. (Health Canada, 2003)
Normal weight – BMI 18.5-24.9
Overweight – BMI 25.0-29.9
Obese – BMI 30.0 and above
The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) is a national population household survey of Canadians aged 12 years and older. It provides self-reported information related to health status, health care utilization and health determinants. Data is generally available down to the level of health region. To produce accurate estimates at the health unit level, two-year period estimates (e.g. 2013 and 2014 data average) were used in this resource along with estimates from the 2003, 2005, 2007/8 , 2009/10 and 2011/12 data collection cycles.
‘Cardiovascular disease is a term that refers to more than one disease of the circulatory system including the heart and blood vessels, whether the blood vessels are affecting the lungs, the brain, kidneys or other parts of the body. The six types of cardiovascular disease are ischemic heart disease (heart attack), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, rheumatic heart disease and congenital heart disease.’ Public Health Agency of Canada 2011 http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/cd-mc/cvd-mcv/index-eng.php
Data from the Canadian Census was provided by Statistics Canada. The census takes place every five years in Canada and is a reliable source of information for population and dwelling counts as well as demographic and other socio-economic characteristics.
Census family is defined as a married couple and the children, if any, of either and/or both spouses; a couple living common law and the children, if any, of either and/or both partners; or a lone parent of any marital status with at least one child living in the same dwelling and that child or those children. All members of a particular census family live in the same dwelling.
A couple may be of opposite or same sex. Children may be children by birth, marriage, common-law union or adoption regardless of their age or marital status as long as they live in the dwelling and do not have their own married spouse, common-law partner or child living in the dwelling. Grandchildren living with their grandparent(s) but with no parents present also constitute a census family.
1. Statistics Canada. Dictionary, Census of Population, Census Family 2016 [Internet] Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada; 2016 [updated 2017 May 3; cited 2018 Nov 30]. Available from https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/ref/dict/fam004-eng.cfm
The coefficient of variation (CV) is the measure used to indicate the sampling variability associated with survey estimates. The CV is obtained by dividing the standard deviation of the estimate by the estimate itself and it is expressed as a percentage of the estimate. Statistics Canada guidelines around the release of survey estimates, based on the magnitude of the CV, have been followed in this resource:
- A CV between 0 and 16.5% is considered acceptable and the estimate can be released without restriction;
- Estimates with a CV between 16.6 and 33.3% can be released, but with a cautionary note regarding high sampling variability;
- Estimates with a CV greater than 33.3% should be suppressed due to extreme sampling variability;
- Estimate release guidelines require at least 10 observations;
For CCHS survey estimates in this resource, CV’s have been calculated using the “bootstrap method”.
A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury. It is caused by a bump, blow or jolt to the head or by a hit to the body that causes the head and brain to move rapidly back and forth. This sudden movement can cause the brain to bounce around or twist in the skull, creating chemical changes in the brain and sometimes stretching and damaging brain cells.
Confidence intervals (CIs) indicate the reliability of a statistical estimate or rate. A 95% confidence interval is interpreted as a range in which we can be 95% confident the true population value lies. Wide confidence intervals, suggest less reliable estimates than narrow confidence intervals. In general, the larger the population, the narrower the CI and hence, the more precise is the estimate. Confidence intervals can also be used as tests of statistical significance when comparing estimates – if the CIs for the estimates under comparison overlap, we can say the difference between the estimates is not statistically significant. For CCHS data, 95% CIs have been calculated using the “bootstrap method”.
The ratio of the combined child population aged 0 to 19 and population aged 65 and over to the population 20 to 64 years old.
The population aged 65 and over and those under age 20 are more likely to be socially and/or economically dependent on the working aged population, and they may also put additional demands on health services. This ratio is presented as the number of dependents for every 100 people in the working age population.1
1. Statistics Canada. Health indicators, data and definitions, community and health system characteristics 82-221-X [Internet]. Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada. 2000 [updated 2018 Aug 22 May 24; cited 2018 Nov 27] Available from: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/82-221-x/2017003/chsc-ccss-eng.htm#chsc1_4
Diagnoses are classified using the Canadian modification of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10-CA). For more information about what diagnoses are included in each ICD-10 chapter please consult http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2010/en
A small geographic area with a population of 400 to 700 persons. All of Canada is divided into dissemination areas which are used to report Census information.