MHLU - Health Status Resource

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A (7) | B (3) | C (7) | D (3) | E (2) | F (5) | G (1) | H (7) | I (13) | K (1) | L (10) | M (7) | N (5) | O (3) | P (13) | R (4) | S (20) | T (5) | U (2) | V (1) | W (3) | Y (1)

Population Density

Number of people per square kilometre. Calculated by dividing the total population by land area.

Population Growth

The population percentage change between two time periods or the ratio of the difference between the population at the end of the period and the population at the beginning of the period relative to the population at the beginning of the period.

Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL)

The sum of the total years of life lost relative to age 75. PYLL is calculated by adding together, for all deaths, the number of years remaining until age 75, and then dividing by the population under the age of 75 years.

Pregnancy Rate

The number of in-hospital deliveries of live births and stillbirths, plus the number of therapeutic abortions, among females aged 15-49 years per 1,000 females aged 15-49.

Preterm Birth Rate

Number of live births delivered before 37 completed weeks of gestation per 100 live births.

Prevalence Rate

The total number of cases of an event in the population that exist for a certain period or point in time

Publicly Funded Immunization Schedules for Ontario

The Publicly Funded Immunization Schedules for Ontario is maintained by the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. It outlines a variety of vaccines that are to be offered to all eligible Ontarians at no charge, and articulates the appropriate age and time intervals at which to receive each vaccine. The Publicly Funded Immunization Schedules for Ontario is used to assess whether a student is appropriately immunized for the purposes of the ISPA.

Rate (Unadjusted or Crude)

Total number of events (e.g., deaths, births, hospitalizations) divided by the total population for a given time period and geography.

If one is interested in knowing the true event rates in a particular geographic area then unadjusted or crude rate should be used instead of age standardized rate.

Residential Instability

This measure refers to area-level concentrations of people who experience high rates of family or housing instability. The indicators included in this dimension measure the types and density of residential accommodations, as well as certain family structure characteristics such as proportion of the population who are single/ divorced/ widowed. It is one of the components of the Ontario Marginalization Index 1

1. Matheson, FI; Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Public Health Ontario). 2016 Ontario marginalization index: user guide. Toronto, ON: Providence St. Joseph’s and St. Michael’s Healthcare; 2018. Joint publication with Public Health Ontario. Available from: https://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/eRepository/userguide-on-marg.pdf

Respiratory Diseases

‘Chronic respiratory diseases are chronic diseases of the airways and other parts of the lung. Some of the most common are asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, cystic fibrosis, sleep apnea and occupational lung diseases. Respiratory diseases affect all ages-children, teens, adults and seniors.’ Public Health Agency of Canada 2011 http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/cd-mc/crd-mrc/index-eng.php

Rural Area

Rural areas (RAs) include all territory lying outside population centres. Taken together, population centres and rural areas cover all of Canada. Rural population also includes all population living in rural areas of cities such as the City of London, as well as population living in rural areas outside of cities1

1.Statistics Canada. Population Centre and Rural Area Classification 2016 [Internet]. Ottawa. Ministry of Industry; 2017 Feb 8. Available from: www.statcan.gc.ca/eng/subjects/standard/pcrac/2016/introduction 

Self-harm injuries

The group of injuries included in this category for emergency room visits are those where the individual purposely inflicted poisoning or injury on themselves. It also includes attempted suicide.

Self-Reported Chronic Health Conditions Survey Question

The question in the Canadian Community Health Survey is “Now I’d like to ask about certain chronic health conditions which you may have. We are interested in ‘long-term conditions’ which are expected to last or have already lasted 6 months or more and that have been diagnosed by a health professional”.

Seniors Dependency Ratio

Number of people aged 65 years and older divided by the number of people aged 20 to 64 multiplied by 100. (Also known as Elderly Dependency Ratio.)

Sex of person

Refers to the sex assigned at birth based on a person’s reproductive system and other physical characteristics. A person’s sex may differ from a person’s gender; a person’s gender may change over time and reflects the gender that a person internally feels and/or the gender a person publicly expresses.

Sex ratio at birth

The ratio of males born alive per 100 females born alive.

Small Counts

The stability of a rate is dependent on the number of events that contribute to that rate. Therefore, rates in small populations are often unstable due to the relatively small number of events that occur each year. When comparing trends over time between Middlesex-London, the province and the Peer Group, we often see a larger fluctuation in rates locally than for Ontario, in which the trends are fairly smooth from year to year – this concept needs to be considered when interpreting the time trends in this resource. Furthermore, the following strategies were implemented in order to present the most stable, reliable rates at the local level:

  • Rates based on counts less than 5 have been suppressed;  
  • Directly age-standardized rates have only been derived where there were 20 or more events across all age groups;
  • For most unadjusted rates and rates of rare outcomes, multiple years of data have been collapsed to present an average annual rate. 

Small counts

The stability of a rate is dependent on the number of events that contribute to that rate. Therefore, rates in small populations are often unstable due to the relatively small number of events that occur each year. When comparing trends over time between Middlesex-London, the province and the Peer Group, we often see a larger fluctuation in rates locally than for Ontario, in which the trends are fairly smooth from year to year – this concept needs to be considered when interpreting the time trends and the confidence intervals in this resource.

Small-for-Gestational Age Rate

The number of live births with a birth weight below the tenth percentile of birth weights for their gestational age and sex, per 100 live births.

Smog

Smog is made up of predominantly ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter. Ozone has an impact on smog levels primarily in summer whereas fine particulate matter elevates smog levels all year. http://airqualityontario.com/press/faq.php

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