Low income cut‐offs (LICOs) are income thresholds, determined by analyzing trends in family spending. Values below the low income cut-off indicate that individuals or families may be devoting a larger share of income than the average family on the necessities of food, shelter and clothing. The LICO is reported based on after-tax income.
Exceeding the low-risk alcohol drinking guidelines means drinking in excess of the recommendations in either guideline 1 or guideline 2.
Guideline 1: To reduce long term harm. Recommends no more than 10 standard drinks a week for women (no more than 2 a day) and no more than 15 standard drinks a week for men (no more than 3 a day). Include non-drinking days.
Guideline 2: To reduce risk of injury. Recommends drinking no more than 3 standard drinks a day for women or 4 for men on any single occasion.
is a measure of low-income and has been identified as Canada’s official poverty line. It defines the cost of purchasing a specified basket of goods and services to enjoy a modest, basic standard of living.1
1. Statistics Canada, Dictionary, Census of population 2016 – Market Basket Measure (MBM) [updated 2017 Sep 13; cited 2019 Feb 20]. Available from: https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/ref/dict/pop165-eng.cfm
is an area (neighbourhood) based summary measure that simultaneously assesses the neighbourhood’s education, employment, income, housing conditions and family structure.1
1. Matheson, FI; Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Public Health Ontario). 2016 Ontario marginalization index: user guide. Toronto, ON: Providence St. Joseph’s and St. Michael’s Healthcare; 2018. Joint publication with Public Health Ontario. https://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/eRepository/userguide-on-marg.pdf
The median is a measure of central tendency used to describe data. The median of a set of values is calculated by first ordering the values from smallest to largest; the median is the middle number of the ordered values. One-half of the values in the set are above the median, and one-half of the values are below the median.
Middlesex-London, as referred to in this resource, includes the City of London and the County of Middlesex and is the region served by the Middlesex-London Health Unit.
First language learned in childhood and still understood at the time of the Census.
Method of smoothing irregularities in trend data, such as long term trends in incidence or mortality. Moving averages make it easier to understand long-term trends in rates that otherwise might be masked by short-term fluctuations (Last, 4 ed).
The number of multiple live births per 100 live births.
This classifies respondents according to their need for help (because of health reasons) with instrumental activities of daily living such as preparing meals, shopping for groceries or other necessities, doing everyday housework, doing heavy household chores (washing walls, yard work), and personal care (washing, dressing or eating), moving about inside the house or paying bills.
Birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida (when the spine does not close) and anencephaly (when part of the brain and skull are missing).1
1. Public Health Agency of Canada. Folic Acid and Neural Tube Defects [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2018 Nov 12]. Available from: https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/pregnancy/folic-acid.html
Nicotine produces feelings of pleasure, alertness and other mood-altering effects. These physical and psychological factors make it difficult to stop using tobacco, even if the person wants to quit. It is also referred to as an addiction to tobacco.1
1. Centre for Addiction and Mental Health [Internet]. Toronto (ON): Centre for Addiction and Mental Health; c2019. Nicotine Dependence [cited 2019 Apr 25]; [About 8 screens]. Available from: https://www.camh.ca/en/health-info/mental-illness-and-addiction-index/ni...
Ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is derived from oxidized nitrogen oxide (NO) and is generally a marker of combustion related air pollution, including power and chemical plants and traffic emissions. Adverse health effects may come from NO2 itself or its many secondary reaction products including ozone (O3).
Non-permanent residents are people from another country who have a work or study permit or who are refugee claimants, and their family members sharing the same permit and living in Canada with them. They are not considered immigrants.
The nutritious food basket provides information about the approximate cost of eating healthy. The weekly cost of food is based on a survey of 67 food items from 12 local chains and independent grocery stores. The food items included in the survey are determined by the food buying patterns of the average Canadian and data provided by Statistics Canada.
Cancer Care Ontario provides access to the Ontario Cancer Registry through SEERStat software (Release [6.6.2] February, 2011). The Registry is a database of information on all Ontario residents who have been newly diagnosed with cancer (incidence) or who have died of cancer (mortality). The Registry is populated from four main data sources: hospital discharges and emergency care, pathology reports, regional cancer centre records, and death certificates. All new cancer cases are registered, with the exception of non-melanoma skin cancer.
“acute intoxication/toxicity death resulting from the direct effects of the administration of exogenous substance(s) where one or more of the substances is an opioid, regardless of how the opioid was obtained.” Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario.
All visits to the emergency department related to the opioids for either a poisoning by an opioid drug or a mental and behavioural disorder due to use of opioids. Some examples include acute intoxication, dependence syndrome, withdrawal state and psychotic disorder.
Internal databases maintained at the Middlesex-London Health Unit provided data on:
- Vector Borne Disease surveillance;
- Rabies investigations;
- Food handler certification;
- Extreme Temperature Alerts;
- The Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) provided data on motor-vehicle collisions.
- Information on air quality (poor air quality and smog advisories) was obtained through the Ontario Ministry of the Environment.
- Diabetes prevalence rates and rates of chronic diseases by income quintile was provided by the ICES InTool.
Ozone (O3) is created when nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds combine in the presence of sunlight. High ozone occurs primarily in the summer, though over time levels of ozone are also increasing in the winter in Southern Ontario. Ozone is associated with adverse effects on respiratory symptoms and lung function. http://airqualityontario.com/press/faq.php