MHLU - Health Status Resource

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A (10) | B (3) | C (12) | D (3) | E (4) | F (6) | G (1) | H (11) | I (17) | K (1) | L (13) | M (7) | N (6) | O (5) | P (19) | R (4) | S (26) | T (5) | U (3) | V (1) | W (3) | Y (1)

Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR)

Actual number of deaths in the Middlesex-London population divided by the number of deaths expected if the population had the same age and sex specific mortality rates as the population of Ontario.

Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) Interpretation

  • An SMR of 1 indicates that, after adjusting for the effect of differences in age and sex structure between the geographic areas, the mortality rate in Middlesex-London is the same as the rate for Ontario.
  • An SMR of greater than 1 indicates that, after adjusting for the effect of differences in age and sex structure between the geographic areas, there is a higher mortality rate in Middlesex-London than in Ontario.
  • An SMR of less than 1 indicates that, after adjusting for the effect of differences in age or sex structure between the geographic areas, there is a lower mortality rate in Middlesex-London than in Ontario.
  • The vertical black line above and below the dot indicates the upper and lower confidence intervals. When the confidence interval does not cross 1, the difference between the rate for Middlesex-London and Ontario is statistically significant.

Statistical Significance

A difference between two estimates which is statistically significant indicates that it is very unlikely to have occurred due to chance alone.

Stillbirth rate

The number of births that are stillborn per 1,000 births (live or still).


Can be normal in response to certain pressures and demands that occur in everyday life. Chronic stress can lead to poor health including mental health problems and medical issues.1

1. Centre for Addiction and Mental Health [Internet]. Toronto (ON): Centre for Addiction and Mental Health; c2019. Stress [cited 2019 May 28]; [About 5 screens]. Available from:

Struck by or against

This category of injuries includes being struck by a falling object, such as a rock. Sport equipment such as a ball or hockey stick are also included as well as situations where people run into other objects such as a wall. It does not include assault, intentional self-harm, collisions with other people or being struck by a car as a pedestrian. 

Sulphur Dioxide

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) is a gaseous oxide that results from the combustion of sulphur containing fossil fuels and also from the smelting of sulphur containing ores. Typically SO2 is emitted from electrical utilities and other industrial facilities. Sulphur dioxide is also a precursor to sulphate aerosols, commonly contained within fine and ultrafine particulate matter, and to the formation of acid rain.

Syphilis categories

A syphilis infection is categorized as primary, secondary, early latent, late latent or tertiary depending on the amount of time since the initial infection and the presenting symptoms.  During the primary, secondary and early latent stages, syphilis infections can be spread to others.  Late latent and tertiary infections cannot spread to others but may lead to significant health problems for the infected individual.

The Labour Force

People over the age of 15 years who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but were available to start work in the week prior to the Census and looked for work in the past 4 weeks. It excludes anyone who may have been without a job and was not actively looking for work.

Total Dependency Ratio

Number of people aged 65 years and older and children under the age of 20 divided by the number of people aged 20 to 64

Total Fertility Rate

The average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to the age-specific fertility rates for that area and period.

Treaty Indian

A First Nations person with status under the Indian Act, that signed a treaty with the Crown, or a person of Aboriginal ancestry who holds treaty status under the Federal Indian Act.

Tuberculosis (TB) – active and latent infections

Active tuberculosis (TB) infection means that TB bacteria are present in a person’s body and are growing and causing symptoms.  If the active TB infection is the lungs or other parts of the airway, it can be spread to other people.  A latent TB infection means that TB bacteria are present in a person’s body, but his/her immune system is able to prevent the TB bacteria from growing.  Individuals with latent TB infection are not able to spread TB to others.


People over the age of 15 years currently without work, but who were available to start work and who had looked for work in the previous four weeks.  Anyone who had not looked for work in the previous four weeks is excluded. 

Unsuitable housing

Is defined as not having enough bedrooms for the size and composition of the household according to the National Occupancy Standard.

Urban Area

Urban areas include both large and small population centres with a population of at least 1,000 and a density of 400 or more people per square kilometer (e.g., London, Strathroy Ilderton).  Statistics Canada now uses the term population centre instead of urban area. 1

1.Statistics Canada. Population Centre and Rural Area Classification 2016 [Internet]. Ottawa. Ministry of Industry; 2017 Feb 8. Available from: 

Visible Minorities

Visible minority refers to whether a person belongs to a visible minority group as defined by the Employment Equity Act,1995, and, if so, the visible minority group to which the person belongs. The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as "persons, other than Aboriginal peoples who are… non-white in colour."

What is the London Census Metropolitan Area (CMA)?

The London CMA includes the municipalities of London, St. Thomas, as well as Thames Centre, Middlesex Centre, Strathroy-Caradoc, Adelaide Metcalfe, Central Elgin and Southwold. The London CMA was one of 15 included in the study. There are 33 CMAs in Canada. 

What is the SES gap?

The 'gap' in health indicators was measured by a ratio of the rate in the low Socioeconomic status (SES) group to the rate in the high SES group. A ratio of 1.0 indicates no difference between the two groups. A ratio higher than one indicates higher rate of the disease or behaviour in the low SES group.

Work stress

The harmful physical and emotional effects when conflict exists between the demands on the job and the employee’s control over meeting the demands.1

1. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety [Internet]. Ottawa (ON). Government of Canada. Workplace Stress – General. [modified 2019 May 28; cited 2019 May 28]; [About 8 screens]. Available from: