is an area (neighbourhood) based summary measure that simultaneously assesses the neighbourhood’s education, employment, income, housing conditions and family structure.1
1. Matheson, FI; Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Public Health Ontario). 2016 Ontario marginalization index: user guide. Toronto, ON: Providence St. Joseph’s and St. Michael’s Healthcare; 2018. Joint publication with Public Health Ontario. https://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/eRepository/userguide-on-marg.pdf
The median is a measure of central tendency used to describe data. The median of a set of values is calculated by first ordering the values from smallest to largest; the median is the middle number of the ordered values. One-half of the values in the set are above the median, and one-half of the values are below the median.
Middlesex-London, as referred to in this resource, includes the City of London and the County of Middlesex and is the region served by the Middlesex-London Health Unit.
First language learned in childhood and still understood at the time of the Census.
Method of smoothing irregularities in trend data, such as long term trends in incidence or mortality. Moving averages make it easier to understand long-term trends in rates that otherwise might be masked by short-term fluctuations (Last, 4 ed).
The number of multiple live births per 100 live births.
This classifies respondents according to their need for help (because of health reasons) with instrumental activities of daily living such as preparing meals, shopping for groceries or other necessities, doing everyday housework, doing heavy household chores (washing walls, yard work), and personal care (washing, dressing or eating), moving about inside the house or paying bills.
Birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida (when the spine does not close) and anencephaly (when part of the brain and skull are missing).1
1. Public Health Agency of Canada. Folic Acid and Neural Tube Defects [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2018 Nov 12]. Available from: https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/pregnancy/folic-acid.html
Ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is derived from oxidized nitrogen oxide (NO) and is generally a marker of combustion related air pollution, including power and chemical plants and traffic emissions. Adverse health effects may come from NO2 itself or its many secondary reaction products including ozone (O3).
Non-permanent residents are people from another country who have a work or study permit or who are refugee claimants, and their family members sharing the same permit and living in Canada with them. They are not considered immigrants.
The nutritious food basket provides information about the approximate cost of eating healthy. The weekly cost of food is based on a survey of 67 food items from 12 local chains and independent grocery stores. The food items included in the survey are determined by the food buying patterns of the average Canadian and data provided by Statistics Canada.
Cancer Care Ontario provides access to the Ontario Cancer Registry through SEERStat software (Release [6.6.2] February, 2011). The Registry is a database of information on all Ontario residents who have been newly diagnosed with cancer (incidence) or who have died of cancer (mortality). The Registry is populated from four main data sources: hospital discharges and emergency care, pathology reports, regional cancer centre records, and death certificates. All new cancer cases are registered, with the exception of non-melanoma skin cancer.
Internal databases maintained at the Middlesex-London Health Unit provided data on:
- Vector Borne Disease surveillance;
- Rabies investigations;
- Food handler certification;
- Extreme Temperature Alerts;
- The Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) provided data on motor-vehicle collisions.
- Information on air quality (poor air quality and smog advisories) was obtained through the Ontario Ministry of the Environment.
- Diabetes prevalence rates and rates of chronic diseases by income quintile was provided by the ICES InTool.
Ozone (O3) is created when nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds combine in the presence of sunlight. High ozone occurs primarily in the summer, though over time levels of ozone are also increasing in the winter in Southern Ontario. Ozone is associated with adverse effects on respiratory symptoms and lung function. http://airqualityontario.com/press/faq.php
Small airborne solid particles are referred to as fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and may contain harmful aerosols, combustion particles and metal vapours. These particles, measuring less than 2.5 μg in diameter, can penetrate deep into the lungs and damage tissues through chronic inflammation.
The grouping of Ontario public health units with socio-economic characteristics similar to those of Middlesex-London. It includes Brant County, City of Hamilton, Niagara, Windsor-Essex County and Middlesex-London. It is based on the 2015 Statistics Canada Peer Group A that includes health regions from across Canada that are characterized by having population centres with high population density and a rural mix.
A rate which is provided per 100,000 population means that the value of the rate represents the number of events which would occur for every 100,000 people in a specified population.
This concept indicates the respondent's health status based on his or her own judgement. It comes from a survey question asked in the Canadian Community Health Survey of the whole non-institutionalized population aged 12 or older.
Conditions which originate in the perinatal period, i.e. the period immediately before, during and after birth. This may include the following:
- Fetus and newborn affected by maternal factors and by complications of pregnancy, labour and delivery
- Disorders related to length of gestation and fetal growth
- Birth trauma
- Respiratory and cardiovascular disorders specific to the perinatal period
- Infections specific to the perinatal period
- Haemorrhagic and haematological disorders of fetus and newborn
- Transitory endocrine and metabolic disorders specific to fetus and newborn
- Digestive system disorders of fetus and newborn
- Conditions involving the integument and temperature regulation of fetus and newborn
Population centre has replaced the term urban area formerly used by Statistics Canada. It is an area with a population of at least 1,000 and a density of 400 or more people per square kilometre. All areas outside population centres continue to be defined as rural areas.
Small population centres have a population of between 1,000 and 29,999; medium population centres, 30,000 and 99,999; and large urban population centres, 100,000 and over. The area of the population centre is not necessarily the same geographic area described by the city or municipal boundaries as it includes the more densely populated areas adjacent the population cores that meet the 2016 revised set of criteria and threshold levels.1
1. Statistics Canada. Population Centre and Rural Area Classification 2016 [Internet]. Ottawa. Ministry of Industry; 2017 Feb 8. Available from: www.statcan.gc.ca/eng/subjects/standard/pcrac/2016/introduction