The Aboriginal identity population includes people who reported that they identify with at least one Aboriginal group; that is, North American Indian, Métis or Inuit, and/or those who reported being a Treaty Indian or a Registered Indian, as defined by the Indian Act of Canada, and/or those who reported they were members of an Indian band or First Nations.
An adverse event following immunization (AEFI) is an unwanted or unexpected health effect that occurs after an immunization is given. AEFI may include local reactions at the injection site, allergic reactions, and other conditions or reactions. It is important to note that an adverse event that follows an immunization may, or may not, be due to that immunization.
Ontario public health units are required to follow up potential AEFI that are reported by health care providers. Reported AEFI that meet the provincial case definition are included in the provincial, national, and international system of vaccine safety monitoring.
Is measured using the shelter-cost-to-income ratio. When households spend 30% or more of their total before-tax household income on shelter costs it is considered not to be affordable.
The number of live births to women in a given age group over the number of women in that age group.
Age-standardized rates may be used to compare different geographic areas or time frames to adjust for any differences in the age structure of the populations that could cause a difference in rates.
It reflects the number of events (e.g., deaths, hospitalizations) that would occur for a given population if that population had the same age distribution as the 1991 Canadian population.
Age-standardized rates have been used to make more valid comparisons than comparing crude rates. Standardization requires adjusting for the effects of varying age structures of different populations and over different periods of time. The importance of age-standardization can be illustrated by using Population X, which has a higher proportion of elderly persons than Population Y. The unadjusted or “crude” mortality rate for Population X would be significantly higher than Population Y solely because it has a higher proportion of elderly persons and the elderly have a much higher death rate than younger people. This concept also applies when comparing one population over different time periods if the age structure of the population changes over time. By standardizing the mortality rates for Population X, we can see what the mortality rate would be like if they had the same age structure as Population Y. The two different populations are now compared directly.
This index is based on six pollutants that have adverse effects on human health and the environment: ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and total reduced sulphur (TRS) compounds.
AQI < 32 = good or very good; AQI 32-49 = moderate; AQI 50-99 = poor; AQI >99 = very poor
Air quality in the poor or very poor range can have adverse effects on a large portion of the animal/human population and can damage property and vegetation. (Ministry of the Environment, 2008)
When an infant is fed breast milk in combination with other formula, water, substitute, or food.
The Association of Public Health Epidemiologists in Ontario is an organization of approximately 90 full members who practice epidemiology in Ontario's public health units, as well as more than 150 affiliate members. APHEO's mission is to advance and promote the discipline and professional practice of epidemiology in Ontario public health units.