Self-reported survey data is valuable because it assesses behaviours in the population, data not usually collected elsewhere, but it is not the most reliable source of health data. People are not always aware of or truthful about their health behaviours, their height and their weight when asked in a survey.
Number of live births weighing less than 2500 grams (5 lbs, 8 oz) at birth per 100 live births.
Low income cut‐offs (LICOs) are income thresholds, determined by analyzing trends in family spending. Values below the low income cut-off indicate that individuals or families may be devoting a larger share of income than the average family on the necessities of food, shelter and clothing. The LICO is reported based on after-tax income.
Canada's Low Risk Drinking Guidelines indicate no more than 2 standard drinks on any one day for women and no more than 3 standard drinks on any one day for men with a maximum of 10 and 15 standard drinks a week for women and men, respectively. A couple of days with no alcohol drinking should be taken each week. (http://www.ccsa.ca/Eng/topics/alcohol/drinking-guidelines/Pages/default.aspx)
Middlesex-London, as referred to in this resource, includes the City of London and the County of Middlesex and is the region served by the Middlesex-London Health Unit.
First language learned in childhood and still understood at the time of the Census.
Method of smoothing irregularities in trend data, such as long term trends in incidence or mortality. Moving averages make it easier to understand long-term trends in rates that otherwise might be masked by short-term fluctuations (Last, 4 ed).
This classifies respondents according to their need for help (because of health reasons) with instrumental activities of daily living such as preparing meals, shopping for groceries or other necessities, doing everyday housework, doing heavy household chores (washing walls, yard work), and personal care (washing, dressing or eating), moving about inside the house or paying bills.
Ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is derived from oxidized nitrogen oxide (NO) and is generally a marker of combustion related air pollution, including power and chemical plants and traffic emissions. Adverse health effects may come from NO2 itself or its many secondary reaction products including ozone (O3).
The nutritious food basket provides information about the approximate cost of eating healthy. The weekly cost of food is based on a survey of 67 food items from 12 local chains and independent grocery stores. The food items included in the survey are determined by the food buying patterns of the average Canadian and data provided by Statistics Canada.
Cancer Care Ontario provides access to the Ontario Cancer Registry through SEERStat software (Release [6.6.2] February, 2011). The Registry is a database of information on all Ontario residents who have been newly diagnosed with cancer (incidence) or who have died of cancer (mortality). The Registry is populated from four main data sources: hospital discharges and emergency care, pathology reports, regional cancer centre records, and death certificates. All new cancer cases are registered, with the exception of non-melanoma skin cancer.
Internal databases maintained at the Middlesex-London Health Unit provided data on:
- Vector Borne Disease surveillance;
- Rabies investigations;
- Food handler certification;
- Extreme Temperature Alerts;
- The Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) provided data on motor-vehicle collisions.
- Information on air quality (poor air quality and smog advisories) was obtained through the Ontario Ministry of the Environment.
- Diabetes prevalence rates and rates of chronic diseases by income quintile was provided by the ICES InTool.
Ozone (O3) is created when nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds combine in the presence of sunlight. High ozone occurs primarily in the summer, though over time levels of ozone are also increasing in the winter in Southern Ontario. Ozone is associated with adverse effects on respiratory symptoms and lung function. http://airqualityontario.com/press/faq.php
Small airborne solid particles are referred to as fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and may contain harmful aerosols, combustion particles and metal vapours. These particles, measuring less than 2.5 μg in diameter, can penetrate deep into the lungs and damage tissues through chronic inflammation.
Statistics Canada used socio-demographic data from the 2006 Census to create "peer groups" of health regions that have similar characteristics. In total, 24 socio-demographic variables and prominent geographic characteristics were used to create 10 peer groups. The Peer Group used in this resource includes the Ontario health regions in Statistics Canada Peer Group A without Middlesex-London. The regions are: Brant County; Elgin-St. Thomas; Haldimand-Norfolk; Haliburton, Kawartha, Pine Ridge; City of Hamilton; Hastings and Prince Edward Counties; Kingston, Frontenac and Lennox and Addington; Lambton; Leeds, Grenville and Lanark District; Niagara Regional Area; Oxford County; Peterborough County-City; Eastern Ontario; Windsor-Essex County. http://www12.statcan.ca/health-sante/82-228/help-aide/Q03.cfm?Lang=E
A rate which is provided per 100,000 population means that the value of the rate represents the number of events which would occur for every 100,000 people in a specified population.
This concept indicates the respondent's health status based on his or her own judgement. It comes from a survey question asked in the Canadian Community Health Survey of the whole non-institutionalized population aged 12 or older.
Conditions which originate in the perinatal period, i.e. the period immediately before, during and after birth. This may include the following:
- Fetus and newborn affected by maternal factors and by complications of pregnancy, labour and delivery
- Disorders related to length of gestation and fetal growth
- Birth trauma
- Respiratory and cardiovascular disorders specific to the perinatal period
- Infections specific to the perinatal period
- Haemorrhagic and haematological disorders of fetus and newborn
- Transitory endocrine and metabolic disorders specific to fetus and newborn
- Digestive system disorders of fetus and newborn
- Conditions involving the integument and temperature regulation of fetus and newborn
Population Centre has replaced the term urban area. It is an area with a population of at least 1,000 and a density of 400 or more people per square kilometre. All areas outside population centres continue to be defined as rural areas.
Small population centres have a population of between 1,000 and 29,999; medium population centres, 30,000 and 99,999; and large urban population centres, 100,000 and over.
The sum of the total years of life lost relative to age 75. PYLL is calculated by adding together, for all deaths, the number of years remaining until age 75, and then dividing by the population under the age of 75 years.